1442               Alfonso V of Aragon is crowned King of Naples.

1812               Napoleon Bonaparte and his army invade Russia.

1849               The gas mask is patented by Lewis P. Haslett.

1862               Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart begins his ride around the Union Army outside of Richmond, Virginia.

1901               Cuba agrees to become an American protectorate by accepting the Platt Amendment.

1918               The first airplane bombing raid by an American unit occurs in France.

1920               Republicans nominate Warren G. Harding for president and Calvin Coolidge for vice president.

1921               President Warren Harding urges every young man to attend military training camp.

1926               Brazil quits the League of Nations in protest over plans to admit Germany.

1931               Gangster Al Capone and 68 of his henchmen are indicted for violating Prohibition laws.

1937               Eight of Stalin's generals are sentenced to death during purges in the Soviet Union.

1942               American bombers strike the oil refineries of Ploesti, Romania for the first time.

1963               Black civil rights leader Medgar Evers is assassinated by a gunman outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi.

1967               The Supreme Court rules that states cannot ban interracial marriages.

1972               At a hearing in front the of a U.S. House of Representatives committee, Air Force General John Lavalle defends his orders on engagement in Vietnam.

1977               David Berkowitz gets 25 years to life for the Son of Sam murders in New York.

1985               The U.S. House of Representatives approves $27 million in aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.

1991                Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines begins erupting for the first time in 600 years.