858                 Benedict III ends his reign as Catholic Pope.

1492               Christopher Columbus signs a contract with Spain to find a western route to the Indies.

1524               Present-day New York Harbor is discovered by Giovanni da Verrazzano.

1535               Antonio Mendoza is appointed first viceroy of New Spain.

1758               Frances Williams, the first African-American to graduate from a college in the western hemisphere, publishes a collection of Latin poems.

1808               Bayonne Decree by Napoleon Bonaparte of France orders seizure of U.S. ships.

1824               Russia abandons all North American claims south of 54' 40'.

1861               Virginia becomes the eighth state to secede from the Union.

1864               General Ulysses Grant bans the trading of prisoners.

1865               Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in the Lincoln assassination.

1875               The game "snooker" is invented by Sir Neville Chamberlain.

1895               China and Japan sign peace treaty of Shimonoseki.

1929               Baseball player Babe Ruth and Claire Hodgson, a former member of the Ziegfeld Follies, get married.

1946               The last French troops leave Syria.

1947               Jackie Robinson bunts for his first major league hit.

1961               Some 1,400 Cuban exiles attack the Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro.

1964               Jerrie Mock becomes first woman to fly solo around the world.

1969               Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Senator Robert F. Kennedy.

1970               Apollo 13--originally scheduled to land on the moon--lands back safely on Earth after an accident.

1975               Khmer Rouge forces capture the capital of Cambodia, Phnom Penh.

1983               In Warsaw, police rout 1,000 Solidarity supporters.