1629               A Royal charter is granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1743               First American town meeting is held at Boston's Faneuil Hall.

1757               British Admiral John Byng is executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty.

1794               Inventor Eli Whitney receives a patent for his cotton gin.

1900               United States currency goes on the gold standard.

1903               The Senate ratifies the Hay-Herran Treaty, guaranteeing the United States the right to build a canal in Panama.

1912               An anarchist named Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempts to kill Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III in Rome.

1915               The British Navy sinks the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast.

1918               An all-Russian Congress of Soviets ratifies a peace treaty with the Central Powers.

1923               President Warren G. Harding becomes the first U.S. President to file an income tax report.

1936               Adolf Hitler tells a crowd of 300,000 that Germany's only judge is God and itself.

1939               The Nazis dissolve the republic of Czechoslovakia.

1943               The Germans reoccupy Kharkov in the Soviet Union.

1947               The United States signs a 99-year lease on naval bases in the Philippines.

1951               U.N. forces recapture Seoul for the second time during the Korean War.

1954               The Viet Minh launch an assault against the French Colonial Forces at Dien Bien Phu.

1964               A Dallas jury finds Jack Ruby guilty of the murder of assassin Lee Harvey Oswald.

1967               John F. Kennedy's body is moved from a temporary grave to a permanent one in Arlington Cemetery.

1978               An Israeli force of 22,000 invades south Lebanon, hitting the PLO bases.

1990               Mikhail S. Gorbachev becomes president of the Soviet Congress.

1991                The "Birmingham Six," imprisoned for 16 years for their alleged part in an IRA pub bombing, are set free after a court agrees that the police fabricated evidence.